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|NUMBER OF ACCIDENTS|
AGE PER YEAR
DOR LENGTH (MILES)
CLES PER DAY
DENTS PER 100,000 BICY-
|Pre-Lane Striping (Bailey Hill to Willamette)||9||8||7||4||4||32||6.7||5||2.8||145||4.5|
|Lanes Striped 10/78||2||2||**||2.8||***||**|
|Pre-Sidewalk Lanes (20th to 32nd)||1||1||2||1.3||1.1||***|
|Post Installation 7/75||2||3||4||9||2.6||1||1.1||320||2.0|
|Post Striping (33rd to 40th) 7/78||0||**||0.7||***||**|
|Post Striping (40th to City Limits) 8/76||0||0||1.1||90||0|
|Lanes Striped 11/76||3||2||2||7||2.4||1||2.2||***|
|Sidewalk Section (S. Bd. Harlow to Club)||3||2||5||2.4||1.0||350||1.9|
|Pre-Lane Striping (11th to 18th)||3||4||1||8||2.8||1||0.4||***|
|Post Lane Striping 10/76||1||1||2||0.9||0.4||1085||0.6|
|Pre-Lane Striping (6th to 19th)||1||I||0.6||1.1||***|
|Post Striping 8/75||1||8||3||2||14||4.2||1||1.1||276||3.2|
|Pre-Lane Striping (Kincaid to Willamette)||1||1||4||6||1.6||0.3||***|
|Post Lane Striping 10/77||1||1||0.9||0.3||330||2.4|
|Pre-Lane Striping (Patterson to Kincaid)||1||1||0.4||0.2||***|
|Post Lane Striping 10/76||1||1||0.5||0.2||2040||0.3|
|Pre-Signing (Fairgrounds to Kincaid)||1||1||0.5||1.2||***|
|Post Signing 12/75||2||2||3||7||2.2||1.2||440||1.0|
|Olive to Columbia (Striping Proposed)||1||3||4||8||1.6||3||1.2||180||2.0|
|Pre-Striping (5th to 19th)||1||1||0.6||1||1.1||***|
|Post Striping 8/75||1||1||2||4||1.2||1||1.1||460||0.3|
|Pre-Striping (E. Broadway to 13th)||0||0||0.4||***|
|Post Striping 10/76||0||0||0.4||310|
|Pre-Sidewalk Route (24th to 39th)||2||2||1.4||1.3||***|
|Post Installation 7/75||1||1||1||1||4||1.1||2||1.3||250||0.9|
|Total, Note Signed 6/73||1||1||2||3||2||9||1.8||2.1||965||0.2|
|Pre-Striping (Jefferson to High)||1||1||2||0.8||1||0.7||***|
|Post Striping 5/76||1||2||3||1.2||1||0.7||285||1.6|
|Pre-Striping (13th to 19th)||1||1||2.0||0.4||***|
|Post Striping 6/74||2||1||3||0.7||0.4||725||0.7|
|Pre-Striping (Lydick to Garden Way)||1||1||2||0.8||0.9||***|
|Post Striping 6/76||4||4||1.6||0.9||195||2.5|
|Oakway Road (striped 9/78)|
** Short Sample Period
Table III-3 contains examples of bicycle facilities that have: 1) reduced the accident frequencies per year, 2) have not changed the accident frequencies per year, and 3) have increased the accident frequencies per year. Examples of each group follow:
Four streets experienced lower average annual frequencies of bicycle accidents after facilities for bicycles were installed. The "After Installation" frequencies are in parentheses.
Agate, Alder, and 11th Streets have striped bicycle lanes. Each facility is well used by bicyclists and motor vehicle drivers. These striped lanes have channelized bicycle traffic in an expected manner, and promote riding consistent with the Rules of the Road.
The Hilyard Street sidewalk bicycle facility is a section that is not heavily used, and has few motor vehicle conflicts across the sidewalk. In this situation a sidewalk can be successfully used for bicycle movement, as long as the pedestrian volume is low.
Five streets experienced no significant change in frequency of bicycle accidents after facilities for bicycles were installed. The "After Installation" rates are in parentheses.
The increased accident frequency of the High Street facility results from a sidewalk bicyclist hitting a parked car, bicyclists riding double, and tipping over. The increased accident frequency of the 5th Street facility results from a bicyclist tangling a backpack in a wheel. These accidents are not related to the striped bicycle lanes along either street. The sensitivity of the comparisons is demonstrated by the two routes.
The 12th Street facility has existed for the duration of the evaluation project period, while the 18th Avenue facility was recently completed. The average annual frequency of bicycle accidents was very high along 18th Avenue prior to striping.
The average annual frequency of bicycle accidents along 13th Street are not significantly different before and after the bicycle lane striping was installed.
Five streets experienced an increase in the frequency of accidents after the installation of bicycle facilities. Because bicycle usage of the streets was not measured before the facilities were installed, the effects of increasing ridership along the routes cannot be evaluated.
*Average Accidents/year prior to bicycle facilities
** Average Accidents/year after bicycle facilities installed
The Coburg Road accidents include: seven sidewalk collisions, two wrong way riding in the bike lane collisions, and two collisions involving bicyclists properly riding in the bicycle lanes. The sidewalk portion of the bike lanes along Coburg Load are a problem.
The Willamette Street sidewalk bike lanes extend from 19th to 32nd Streets. Each accident along this section involved a bicyclist riding on the sidewalk, or in the wrong direction on Willamette Street.
The sidewalk bicycle facilities result in unexpected bicycle-motor vehicle conflicts. The sidewalk facilities also promote improper riding through intersections and along bike lanes. The unexpected conflicts and improper riding are a primary cause of the accidents along Coburg Road and Willamette Street.
Each of the four collisions along the Harlow Road bike lanes, involved a young bicycle driver turning unexpectedly across the motor vehicle lane. The average age of the young drivers involved in the accidents was thirteen.
The accidents along Pearl Street include seven collisions of bicyclist and left-turning cars, which occurred between 7th and 13th Streets. This bike lane is on the left side of a one-way street. Off-street parking, on-street parking, bus stations, and intersecting streets create conflicts of left-turning motor vehicles and through bicycles. Consideration was given to relocating the facility to the west side of the street. However, turning conflicts with vehicles would still occur, with no real benefit to the bicyclist. The problem is, specific to the location. A similar bike lane on High Street does riot have this problem.
The 15th Street bicycle facility has no striped lanes along the route. The increased average annual frequency of bicycle accidents is probably related to increased ridership, rather than the installation of the bicycle route signs. Five of the accidents involved motor vehicle drivers violating the right-of-way of the bicyclists. The other two accidents did not involve moving motor vehicles.
The following streets had five or more bicycle accidents during the evaluation project period. These streets are on the Eugene Bikeways Master Plan, but do not have installed bicycle route facilities:
The Master Bikeways Plan includes bicycle facilities on or near each of these facilities. Oakway Road was striped for bicycle traffic late in 1978. Bicycle lane striping is proposed for Chambers, 18th, 24th, and 29th Streets. Bike lane striping on 18th Street will attract bicyclists from the problem sections of 17th arid 19th Streets. Also proposed is bike lane striping of Lincoln, Lawrence and Friendly Streets. These streets will provide north-south connections to attract bicyclists from the problem sections of Monroe and Charnelton Streets.
The proposed striping projects channelize bicycle traffic in an expected manner, and allow riding consistent with the Rules of the Road. These projects should improve bicycle safety, as demonstrated by the Alder, Agate, and 11th Street bicycle facilities:
This section compares the bicycle accident rates on existing bicycle routes in the Eugene bikeway system. Bicycle facilities are summarized below under
Bicycle accident rates have been determined from 1978 bicycle counts on the bikeway system, and using Police Reports of Bicycle Accidents. Accident rates on "Separate Bicycle Facilities" are not appropriate for this evaluation project, as there were no bicycle-motor vehicle collisions on Eugene's separate bikeways. The accident reporting study described in the next chapter determined that the bicycle accidents which do not involve motor vehicles are seldom reported to the City.
Table III-4 below lists the accident rates for striped bicycle lanes which have been in use for a year or more, and have available bicycle usage measurements.
The bicycle accident rates for the streets with striped bicycle lanes vary from 0.0 to 5.7 accidents per 100,000 bicycle miles per year. The average rate for the 27 streets is 0.7. For a short low usage section, for example Cal Young Road and 11th Street, the accident rate determinations are sensitive to a single accident occurrence.
BICYCLE ACCIDENT RATES
ON STRIPED BICYCLE ROUTES
EUGENE, OREGON 1978
|Striped Lane Location||Date of
|Length (miles)||Total Report-
|Agate (13th to 24th)||6/74||725||0.8||2||0.2|
|Alder (11th to 18th)||10/76||1085||0.4||2||0.3|
|Amazon Parkway (19th to 29th)||7/73||250||1.0||1||0.2|
|Bailey Hill (11th to City Limits)||9/74||75||1.3||1||0.7|
|Burger (Ohio to Highway 99N)||11/75||115||2.0||0||0.0|
|Cal Young (Coburg to Norkenzie)||7/76||100||0.8||1||1.4|
|Coburg (Centennial to Beltline)||11/76||500||2.2||13||1.5|
|Echo Hollow (Barger to Royal)||9/73||200||1.0||0||0.0|
|Fox Hollow (43rd to W. Amazon)||5/75||115||0.3||0||0.0|
|Gilham (Crescent to Cal Young)||3/77||70||1.0||0||0.0|
|Harlow (Lydick to Garden Way)||6/76||195||0.9||4||2.5|
|Hawkins Heights (18th to Highland Oaks)||9/76||25||0.5||0||0.0|
|High Street (5th to 19th)||8/75||460||1.1||4||0.6|
|Hilyard Street (East Broadway to 13th)||10/76||310||0.1||0||0.0|
|Jefferson (1st to 5th)||4/75||130||0.3||0||0.0|
|Kincaid (11th to 13th)||10/76||340||0.1||0||0.0|
|Norkenzie (Linda to Cal Young)||10/73||120||0.7||1||0.7|
|Patterson (12th to 13th)||10/76||570||0.1||0||0.0|
|Pearl Street (6th to 19th)||8/75||276||1.1||14||3.2|
|Royal (Highway 99N to Royal Oaks)||7/76||135||2.4||1||0.3|
|Willamette (Stonewood to 33rd)||8/76||90||1.1||0||0.0|
|4th Avenue (High to Coburg)||8/75||0.2||0||0.0|
|5th Avenue (Jefferson to High)||5/76||285||0.7||3||1.6|
|11th Avenue (Kincaid to Willamette)||10/77||330||0.3||1||2.4|
|13th Avenue (Patterson to Kincaid)||10/76||2040||0.2||1||0.3|
|18th Avenue (City Limits to Bailey Hill||7/76||115||0.7||0||0:0|
|19th Avenue (Pearl to High)||8/75||0.1||0||0.0|
* Average bicycles per day measured in 1978
** Accidents per 100,000 bicycle miles per year
Table III-5 lists the accident rates for bicycle routes with no paint striping or streets with traffic diverters.
The bicycle accident rates for the streets with bicycle route signing, vary between 0.0 and 3.3 accidents per 100,000 bicycle miles per year, with the average rate of the 19 streets at 0.6. Accident rate determinations for a short street section with low usage, such as High Street, is sensitive to a single accident occurrence.
BICYCLE ACCIDENT RATES
ON SIGNED BICYCLE ROUTES
|Location||Date of Imple-
|Bicycle Volume*||Length (miles)||Total Reported Accidents||Accident Rate**|
|Alder Street (18th to 24th)||6/71||1570||0.4||3||0.3|
|Alder Street (24th to 35th)||5/76||1350||1.4||3||0.2|
|Broadway (McKinley to Charnelton)||10/76||295||1.7||1||0.3|
|Donald (40th to Fox Hollow)||11/76||140||1.3||1||0.7|
|Fairfield (Highway 99N to Elmira)||11/76||105||0.6||0||0.0|
|High Street (4th to 5th)||11/76||400||0.1||1||3.3|
|Kincaid (13th to 15th)||1/77||855||0.2||2||1.7|
|Kincaid (35th to 38th)||7/71||0.3||0||0.0|
|Queens Way (Cal Young to Schoolgrounds)||8/76||0.1||0||0.0|
|Taney . (Barger to Marshall)||7/76||0.7||0||0. 0|
|University (18th to 25th)||6/71||415||0.5||1||0.3|
|Willhi (Echo Hollow to East)||7/76||360||0.2||0||0.0|
|5th Avenue (Polk to Jefferson)||10/75||445||0.4||0||0.0|
|12th Avenue (Arthur to Hilyard)||6/73||965||2.1||9||0.2|
|15th Avenue (Agate to Fairmount)||8/76||245||0.6||2||1.6|
|15th Avenue (Fairgrounds to Kincaid||12/75||440||1.2||7||1.2|
|16th Avenue (Van Buren to Friendly)||7/73||420||0.4||0||0.0|
|17th Avenue (Chambers to Arthur)||5/74||245||0 3||1||0.8|
|25th Avenue (Alder to University)||6/71||0.2||0||0.0|
* Average bicycles per day measured in 1978
** Accidents per 100,000 bicycle miles per year
The accident rates for the sidewalk routes along Hilyard, Coburg, and Willamette Streets are 1.5, 1.9 and 2.0 accidents per 100,000 bicycle miles per year respectively.
The average accident rate for these three sidewalk bicycle route sections is 1.8 accidents per 100,000 bicycle miles per year. This is nearly three times the average for the signed lanes or striped lanes. These facilities are significantly more hazardous for bicycle-motor vehicle accidents.
Bicycle lanes have been successfully used to reduce bicycle accidents. There are, however, a few locations that continue to have conflicts between bicycles and cars. Streets signed as bike routes have not reduced accidents. Bicycle routes on sidewalks have an accident rate three times higher than the rates for the striped lanes and signed routes.
Problem intersection locations are listed in Table III-6. The tabulation identifies intersections with three or more bicycle accidents during the five-year evaluation project period. Accidents are listed by the accident groups as described earlier in this chapter. Specific bicycle facility improvements are described in Chapter VI.
BICYCLE ACCIDENTS AT INTERSECTIONS
by ACCIDENT GROUP
1974 - 1978
|Franklin and Onyx||6||3||3|
|Willamette and 29th||6||1||2||3|
|11th and Alder||4||1||1||2|
|11th and Patterson||4||1||1||2|
|18th and Chambers||4||2||2|
|Harlow and Coburg||3||2||1|
|Franklin and Agate||3||3|
* Group B - The bicyclist rides into the path of a motor vehicle in an intersection of streets
Group C - The motorist drives into the path of a bicycle at an intersection of streets
Group D - The motorist hits the bicyclist from behind
Group E - The bicyclist makes an unexpected turn into the path of a motor vehicle
Group F - The motorist makes an unexpected turn into the path of the bicycle
The majority of the bicycle accidents in Eugene can be related directly to an error made by the bicyclist. Identified bicycle driver errors are listed in the table below.
TABLE III-7 NUMBER OF
RESULTING FROM ERRORS BY BICYCLE DRIVERS
1974 - 1978
|Bicycle Driver Error||Number
|Improper sidewalk riding||37|
|Bicycle rideout from driveway or alley||32|
|Unexpected turn or swerve||29|
|Wrong way riding||23|
|Riding without lights||19|
|Striking parked car||12|
|Driving straight through a turn lane||6|
|Intoxicated bicycle driver||4|
|Wheel fell off||3|
As illustrated above, out of the 391 bicycle accidents, 259 or two-thirds of the total bicycle accidents were related to bicycle driver errors. Alerting bicycle drivers of the hazards of passing turning vehicles, sidewalk riding, riding out of driveways and alleys, turning and swerving unexpectedly, violating signs and signals, riding on the wrong side of a road, riding at night without a light, etc., may help to reduce bicycle-motor vehicles accidents. Providing this information to educators will improve educational programs developed to reduce bicycle accidents.
Bicycle riders must know and obey the Rules of the Road, except those which cannot apply to bicycles. (See Oregon Driver's Manual, 1978-1979, Oregon Motor Vehicles Division, Pages 48 and 49). Almost all of the 259 bicycle driver error accidents noted previously could have been prevented, had the bicyclist applied his or her knowledge of the law. The terms "Improper Riding" and "Improper Passing" are seen throughout the report. In order to clarify their meaning, the following examples are given. Improper riding refers to: Running stop signs, mid-block or intersection rideout without yielding right-of-way, riding on the wrong side of the road, riding the wrong way on a one-way street, etc. Improper passing refers to: Passing on the left at intersections, and passing on the right (same rules as for motor vehicles).
The Eugene Bikeways Master Plan recommended utilizing existing programs in schools, supplemented with publications of bicycle riding education materials, a speaker's bureau and maintenance workshops. Teachers are provided with general materials for traffic safety education by the Oregon Department of Education. Specific information about the problems of bicyclists in Eugene has not been provided. It is recommended that the information concerning Eugene's bicycle accidents be provided to the teachers responsible for teaching bicycle safety.
Bicycle driver errors were not identified in one-third of the bicycle-motor vehicle accidents. A defensive bicycle driver can often avoid a collision. Existing bicycle education programs including driver education classes could be improved by providing training of hazard recognition, risk assessment, and evasive techniques, as well as information concerning laws, riding techniques, coordination skills, and bicycle maintenance.
It is recommended that the City of Eugene cooperate with Eugene's schools, to improve bicycle riding education by providing information necessary to improve education programs. Helping teachers to understand the importance of bicycle riding skills and the primary causes of bicycle accidents, will assist the teachers to teach bicycle safety.